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2012-09-01 : 2412 Hit

How to Manage User and System Settings / Keeping Safe on the Internet




Linux Ubuntu OS, FAQ, Ubuntu, Installation Guides
Ubuntu OS, Linux OS, FAQ, Linux Features, System Requirements

HOW TO MANAGE USER & SYSTEM SETTINGS


CHANGE DATE AND MEASUREMENT FORMATS

Instruction:

  1. Click the icon at the very right of the menu bar and select System Settings.

  2. Open Language Support and select the Regional Formats tab.

  3. Select the region that most closely matches the formats you'd like to use. By default, the list only shows regions that use the language set on the Language tab.

  4. You have to log out and back in for these changes to take effect. Click the icon at the very right of the menu bar and select Log out.

  5. After you've selected a region, the area below the list shows various examples of how dates and other values are shown. Although not shown in the examples, your region also controls the starting day of the week in calendars.

CHANGE THE SYSTEM FORMATS

Instruction:

  1. Change your formats, as described above.

  2. Click Apply System-Wide.

  3. Administrative privileges are required. Enter your password, or the password for the requested administrator account.

CHANGE WHICH LANGUAGE YOU USE

You can use your desktop and applications in any of dozens of languages, provided you have the proper language packs installed on your computer.

Instruction:

  1. Click the icon at the very right of the menu bar and select System Settings.

  2. Click Language Support.

  3. Select your desired language on the Language tab. Drag the language to the top of the list.

  4. You have to log out and back in for language changes to take effect. Click the icon at the very right of the menu bar and select log out.

CHANGE THE SYSTEM LANGUAGE

Instruction:

  1. Change your language, as described above.

  2. Click Apply System-Wide.

  3. Administrative privileges are required. Enter your password, or the password for the requested administrator account.

USE ALTERNATE KEYBOARD LAYOUTS

Instruction:

  1. Click the icon at the very right of the menu bar and select System Settings.

  2. In the Personal section, click Keyboard Layout.

  3. Click the + button, select a layout, and click Add. You can add at most four layouts.

AUTOMATICALLY LOCK YOUR SCREEN

Instruction:

  1. Click the icon at the very right of the menu bar and select System Settings.

  2. Select Brightness and Lock.

  3. Make sure Lock is switched on, then select a timeout from the drop-down list below.
    The screen will automatically lock after you have been inactive for this long.
    You can also select Screen turns off to lock the screen after the screen is automatically turned off, controlled with the turn screen off when inactive for drop-down list above.

  4. To lock your screen immediately, click the icon at the very right of the menu bar and select Lock Screen, or just press Ctrl+Alt+L.

CHANGE THE DESKTOP BACKGROUND

Instruction:

  1. Right click on the desktop and select Change Desktop Background.

  2. Select an image or color. The settings are applied immediately. Switch to an empty workspace to view your entire desktop.

CHANGE THE SIZE OR ROTATION OF THE SCREEN

Instruction:

  1. Click the icon on the very right of the menu bar and select System Settings.

  2. Open Displays.

  3. If you have multiple displays and they are not mirrored, you can have different settings on display. Select a display in the preview area.

  4. Select your desired resolution and rotation.

  5. Click Apply.
    The new settings will be applied for 30 seconds before reverting back.
    That way, if you cannot see anything with the new settings, your old settings will be automatically restored.
    If you are happy with the new settings, click Keep This Configuration.


USEFUL KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

GETTING AROUND THE DESKTOP

an overview of keyboard shortcuts that can help you use your desktop and applications more efficiently. If you cannot use a mouse or pointing device at all, see keyboard navigation for more information on navigating user interfaces with only the keyboard.

Alt+F4Close the current window.
Alt+F2Pop up command window (for quickly running commands)
Alt+TabQuickly switch between windows. Hold down Shift for reverse order.
Alt+`Switch between windows from the same application, or from the selected application after Alt+Tab.
This shortcut uses ` on US keyboards, where the ` key is above Tab. On all other keyboards, the shortcut is Alt plus whatever key is above Tab.
Super+SActivate the workspace switcher. Zoom out on all workspaces.
Super+WActivate "Expo" mode. Show all windows from current workspace.
Shift+Alt+?†‘Activate "Expo" mode. Show all windows from current workspace.
Ctrl+Alt+Arrow keysSwitch between workspaces.
Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Arrow keysMove the current window to a different workspace.
Ctrl+Alt+DeleteLog out.
Ctrl+Super+DHide all windows and show the desktop. Press the keys again to restore your windows.
Ctrl+Alt+LLock the screen.


KEEPING SAFE ON THE INTERNET

DO I NEED ANTI-VIRUS SOFTWARE?

If you are used to Windows or Mac OS, you are probably also used to having anti-virus software running all of the time. Anti-virus software runs in the background, constantly checking for computer viruses that might find their way onto your computer and cause problems.

Anti-virus software does exist for Linux, but you probably don't need to use it. Viruses that affect Linux are still very rare. Some argue that this is because Linux is not as widely used as other operating systems, so no-one writes viruses for it. Others argue that Linux is intrinsically more secure, and security problems that viruses could make use of are fixed very quickly.

Whatever the reason, Linux viruses are so rare that you don't really need to worry about them at the moment.

If you want to be extra-safe, or if you want to check for viruses in files that you are passing between yourself and people using Windows and Mac OS, you can still install anti-virus software. Check in the Ubuntu Software Center where a number of applications are available.

COMMONLY-USED NETWORK PORTS

This is a list of network ports commonly used by applications that provide network services, like file sharing or remote desktop viewing. You can change your system's firewall to block or allow access to these applications.

PortNameDescription
5353/udpmDNS, AvahiAllows systems to find each other, and describe which services they offer, without you having to specify the details manually.
631/udpPrintingAllows you to send print jobs to a printer over the network.
631/tcpPrintingAllows you to share your printer with other people over the network.
5298/tcpPresenceAllows you to advertise your instant messaging status to other people on the network, such as "online" or "busy".
5900/tcpRemote DesktopAllows you to share your desktop so other people can view it or provide remote assistance.
3689/tcpMusic sharing (DAAP)Allows you to share your music library with others on your network.

DO I NEED TO SCAN MY EMAILS FOR VIRUSES?

Viruses are programs that cause problems if they manage to find their way onto your computer. A common way of them getting onto your computer is hrough email messages.

Viruses that can affect computers running Linux are quite rare, so you are unlikely to get a virus through email or otherwise. If you receive an email with a virus hidden in it, it will probably have no effect on your computer. As such, you probably don't need to scan your email for viruses.

You may, however, wish to scan your email for viruses in case you happen to forward a virus from one person to another. For example, if one of your friends has a Windows computer with a virus and sends you a virus-infected email, and you then forward that email to another friend with a Windows computer, then the second friend might get the virus too. You could install an anti-virus applicatio to scan your emails to prevent this, but it's unlikely to happen and most people using Windows and Mac OS have anti-virus software of their own anyway.

ENABLE OR BLOCK FIREWALL ACCESS

Ubuntu comes equipped with the Uncomplicated Firewall (ufw) but the firewall is not enabled by default. Because Ubuntu does not have any open network services (except for basic network infrastructure) in the default installation, a firewall is not needed to block incoming attempted malicious connections.